A cookie is a piece of information in the form of a very small text file that is placed on an internet user’s hard drive. It is generated by a web page server, which is basically the computer that operates a web site. The information the cookie contains is set by the server and it can be used by that server whenever the user visits the site. A cookie can be thought of as an internet user’s identification card, which tell a web site when the user has returned.
Below is the content of a typical cookie. This one is from the Hotmail service and has the filename firstname.lastname@example.org (.txt is the standard filename extension for text files):
HMP1 1 hotmail.msn.com/ 0 1715191808
32107852 1236821008 29449527 *
The codes will only make sense to Microsoft’s MSN Hotmail servers.
Cookies for the internet were originally developed in 1995 by the Netscape Communications Corporation. The word ‘cookie’ comes from ‘magic cookie,’ a term in programming languages for a piece of information shared between co-operating pieces of software. The choice of the word cookie appears to come from the American tradition of giving and sharing edible cookies.
Cookies make the interaction between users and web sites faster and easier. Without cookies, it would be very difficult for a web site to allow a visitor to fill up a shopping cart or to remember the user’s preferences or registration details for a future visit.
Cookies enable web sites to monitor their users’ web surfing habits and profile them for marketing purposes (for example, to find out which products or services they are interested in and send them targeted advertisements).
Cookies come in different flavours:
Session, or transient cookies
Cookies that are stored in the computer’s memory only during a user’s browsing session and are automatically deleted from the user’s computer when the browser is closed.
These cookies usually store a session ID that is not personally identifiable to users, allowing the user to move from page to page without having to log-in repeatedly. They are widely used by commercial web sites (for example, to keep track of items that a consumer has added to a shopping cart).
Session cookies are never written on the hard drive and they do not collect any information from the user’s computer. Session cookies expire at the end of the user’s browser session and can also become no longer accessible after the session has been inactive for a specified length of time, usually 20 minutes.
Cookies that are stored on the user’s computer and are not deleted when the browser is closed. Permanent cookies can retain user preferences for a particular web site, allowing those preferences to be used in future browsing sessions.
Permanent cookies can be used to identify individual users, so they may be used by web sites to analyse users’ surfing behaviour within the web site. These cookies can also be used to provide information about numbers of visitors, the average time spent on a particular page and generally the performance of the web site. They are usually configured to keep track of users for a prolonged period of time, in some cases many years into the future.
If you have Adobe Flash installed on your computer (most computers do), small files may be stored on your computer by websites that contain Flash media, such as video clips. These files are known as Local Shared Objects (LSOs) or Flash cookies. They can be used for the same purposes as regular cookies (properly called HTTP cookies).
Flash cookies can also back up the data that is stored in a regular cookie. When you delete cookies using your browser controls, your Flash cookies are not affected. So a website that served a cookie to you may recognise you on your next visit if it backed up its now-deleted cookie data to a Flash cookie.
You can control Flash cookies. Adobe’s website offers tools to control Flash cookies on your computer and users of the Firefox browser can also get an add-on to detect and delete Flash cookies.
No. Cookies are small pieces of text. They are not computer programs, and they can’t be executed as code. Also, they cannot be used to disseminate viruses, and modern versions of both Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape browsers allow users to set their own limitations to the number of cookies saved on their hard drives.
Cookies are stored on the computer’s hard drive. They cannot access the hard drive – so a cookie can’t read other information saved on the hard drive, or get a user’s e-mail address etc. They only contain and transfer to the server as much information as the users themselves have disclosed to a certain web site.
A server cannot set a cookie for a domain that it is not a member of. In spite of this, users quite often find in their computer files cookies from web sites that they have never visited. These cookies are usually set by companies that sell internet advertising on behalf of other web sites. Therefore it may be possible that users’ information is passed to third party web sites without the users’ knowledge or consent, such as information on surfing habits. This is the most common reason for people rejecting or fearing cookies.
The website will still work and you will be able to get the information you need from the site, but as we develop how the site works and offer more sophisticated services through it this will most likely rely on cookies.
For example if we begin to tailor the content to your interests as expressed by your browsing behaviour this depend on cookies. If you have declined cookies then this kind of service will not be available to you.
If you decline cookies then we will not be able to count your site usage in the statistics that we gather about use of the site.
Virtually all modern browsers allow you to see what cookies you’ve got, and to delete them individually or delete all of them.
Many browsers can also be set up to ask consent for each individual cookie before it is set. This gives you very fine control over what cookies you get, but it can slow down your browsing experience if you have to check each and every cookie.
Most browsers also give you the right to block third party cookies. Most of these third party cookies will be the behavioural advertising cookies. Therefore blocking 3rd party cookies is effectively opting out of most behavioural advertising.
Some browsers let you block cookies from particular sites. So for example if you are happy to get cookies from a site you trust, but you don’t want to get cookies from a site you don’t particularly trust, you can set up your browser to black list the site you don’t trust and refuse any cookies it tries to give you.
Most browsers will let you delete all cookies when you close your browser. You should be aware that any preferences including any opt outs you have set will be lost if you do this.
Finally, you can tell your browser to block all cookies from being set. You should be aware that if you do choose this option many sites will not work as smoothly as you are used to, and some functionality that is reliant on cookies to enable services you want to use will not work at all.
If you continue without changing your settings, we’ll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies from the Chatstation website.
We may use both “session” cookies and “persistent” cookies on the website. We will use the session cookies to keep track of you whilst you navigate the website. We will use the persistent cookies to enable our website to recognise you when you visit.
Session cookies will be deleted from your computer when you close your browser. Persistent cookies will remain stored on your computer until deleted, or until they reach a specified expiry date.
If you want to delete any cookies that are already on your computer, please refer to the instructions for your file management software to locate the file or directory that stores cookies. You can access them through your browser settings.
More information about cookies, including how to block them, control or delete them, can also be found at AboutCookies.org.